Woman sitting in camper van in forest  and using smartphone

Before hitting the road know the costs of converting a van and be prepared for common issues that may come up. (Getty Images)

These days, living on the road doesn’t mean you have to live out of a suitcase and travel from hotel to hotel, or sink your life savings into a luxury motor home that could double as a rock band’s tour bus. Something as simple as a cargo van can become a home away from home – or even your full-time residence.

Converted vans that have storage, a sleeping area, bathroom, miniature kitchen and even a shower are growing in popularity among people who love the idea of traveling regularly without having to find special accommodations for a large motor home.

Considering van life? You’ll want to look at the costs to buy and convert a van as well as keep it in working order, and you should also evaluate travel and accommodation options before taking to the road full time.

[Read: 6 Great Tiny House Communities]

How Much Does a Van Cost?

The benefit of buying a van that hasn’t yet been outfitted with a living space is affordability. You can find used vans for sale in all types of conditions, so if you’re willing to accept some exterior dents or can do some work on the engine, you may find a van for as little as a few thousand dollars.

Ely and Tom MacInnes, 29 and 30, purchased their first van in 2014 – a 1999 Ford E-150 that they named Harrold – for around $3,000. They built out the van's interior living area themselves, which helped cut down on the total cost of their van project. The MacInneses, who live in Albuquerque, New Mexico, when they're not on the road, spent about $700 to insulate and frame the interior, ventilate the roof and outfit the van with electricity and plumbing (though they didn't install a shower and toilet). They installed an $800 refrigerator in the space as well.

The newer a van is, the more you can expect to pay. Kelley Blue Book reports the fair purchase price of a 2011 Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 2500 Passenger van with a standard roof is $18,045 when it’s in good condition without mechanical issues and sold from a dealer. If you purchased the same vehicle from a private party, Kelley Blue Book places the value at $14,556. These prices don't include an interior space outfitted for full-time living, however, which will increase the total cost.

Of course, if you’re willing to pay top dollar for a van that's move-in ready, consider Class B vans, which have been outfitted by a professional RV or motor home company. For example, a new Ram ProMaster van outfitted by Winnebago with solar panels, a drainage system, power ventilation, shower, toilet and more is on the market through RVTrader.com for more than $125,000.

Van Conversion: Professional vs. DIY

Depending on your skill level, confidence and willingness to learn, completing a van conversion as a do-it-yourself project may be the best option. You'll cut down on the cost of labor and have the ability to customize it according to your personal taste.

But if you’re worried about making costly mistakes or would simply rather leave the work to a professional, custom van conversion companies can meet your needs.

Greg Storm, owner of Van Specialties, a custom van conversion company in Tualatin, Oregon, builds out vans of all sorts for sleeping, dining and comfortably taking in the sights. A custom job isn’t cheap, though, as the details add up. For example, according to the Van Specialties website, insulation and plywood panels throughout a van can cost $4,800 or more, depending on the type and size of the van. Overhead cabinets cost between $430 and $690, depending on size. A single solar panel on the roof is $730, and a two-burner propane cooktop installation costs $869.

[Read: How to Sell Your Tiny House]

The MacInneses have completed two different van conversions and are now renovating a motor home, which they showcase on their Instagram account, @thedoginus. While Tom MacInnes says he's grown more accustomed to the process of insulating, framing, adding electrical work and installing ventilation fans, he says many of these steps require a lot of care to avoid problems down the road.

“You’ve got to be careful with insulation because it can also trap moisture, which can deteriorate and rust the walls,” he says. “People can also use spray foam, but that spray foam gets rock-hard and can actually bend the frame (of the van).”

Storm says many van owners come to Van Specialties for professional work on a part of the project they don’t feel comfortable completing themselves. Cutting holes in the roof for ventilation fans, for example, is a task that can easily go wrong if you don’t know what you’re doing, he says.

Keeping Your Van in Good Condition

When your van is ready to hit the road, you’ll need to be prepared for any problems that may arise, from engine trouble to leaking water. Especially if the van is a DIY project, it may be a good idea to start by taking short trips close to your home base.

“Other than the general automotive maintenance – that’s a given – on the camper side of it, battery maintenance is a big part of it,” Storm says. If you don’t ensure that the battery that helps power your living area is charged, you’ll likely find yourself with consistent electrical problems.

As time goes by on the road, be sure you’re regularly keeping stock of every system, pump and point where air or moisture could get in. “Any penetration of the body (of the vehicle), like the roof, probably needs to be inspected annually and resealed,” Storm says.

Consider taking an RV maintenance course that will enable you to fix minor issues and perform maintenance tasks, such as caring for your battery and leak-testing the water system. The National Recreational Vehicle Inspectors Association offers a five-day, in-person course for $1,644, while other courses can be taken online, with videos or with at-home study guides.

[Read: Can You Get a Loan for a Mobile Home?]

Where to Sleep

Another crucial issue to consider is where you will park to sleep. Fortunately, there are plenty of options. Being in a van, you can simply find a parking spot if you’re traveling through a city – though you should be mindful of local laws that prohibit overnight parking or sleeping in cars.

“The best thing about the vans is that they were stealth,” says Ely MacInnes, referring to the fact that a cargo van looks like a work vehicle. “You could park them anywhere and sleep. The RV, not so much ... because it's obvious someone is sleeping in there.”

To plug in for water and electricity, campgrounds for RVs and trailers will likely be your best bet. State parks often offer campsites for a relatively low nightly fee, and many states allow you to purchase annual passes. Be sure to check rules at campgrounds regarding how many consecutive nights you can stay. Private RV parks or campgrounds can be pricier, with some costing as much as $80 per night.

Some national stores like Walmart and Cabela’s welcome RVs, campers and motor homes into their parking lots at night for free. The parking lot lighting can help you feel a bit safer, and there’s a store nearby should you need to stock up on groceries, tools or other items.

Wherever you stay, always plan to leave the area better than you found it. Take any trash away with you, use organic soaps to avoid polluting soil when you dump used water, and if you’re digging a latrine, be sure to properly bury waste. The Leave No Trace center for outdoor ethics provides detailed instructions on its website for the best way to visit campsites to cut down on litter, respect wildlife and reduce the environmental impact of your stay.

10 Best States for a Road Trip

Hitting the Open Road

Car on the road with bicycles,  touring Utah, USA

(Getty Images)

With most schools out for the summer and vacation season well underway, Americans are hitting the road en masse to visit friends and family, to unwind for a few days and to see parts of the country they don't get to enjoy regularly.

And even with gas prices higher this year than in the recent past, AAA projected substantial traffic ahead of Memorial Day – and now ahead of Independence Day – as U.S. travelers appear to be relatively undeterred by higher prices at the pump.

With so much of the country enjoying peak travel season, it's not always easy to settle on a destination. WalletHub recently ranked all 50 states under three umbrellas – cost, safety and range of activities they offer – in order to figure out which parts of the country are best and worst to take a road trip.

Factoring in considerations such as average gas price, road safety, zoos, theme parks, fairs and festivals per capita and nightlife options, WalletHub determined New England to be a relatively poor choice for road trips. Rhode Island, Connecticut and Delaware sat at the very bottom of the list.

Those at the top were more geographically spread out, though many were mountainous or coastal states offering plenty of attractions and scenic roadways. See which states topped the list.

10. Colorado

10. Colorado

Ten Mile Range in Summit County, Colorado.

(Getty Images)

Cost rank: 17th
Safety rank: 27th
Attractions rank: 18th

Colorado edged out Oregon for a spot in the top 10. The state also placed 10th on the U.S. News Best States rankings in 2018, ranking first for its economy, ninth in health care and 10th in quality of life.

9. Utah

9. Utah

Landscape Arch in the Arches National Park, Utah, United States.

(Getty Images)

Cost rank: 34th
Safety rank: 8th
Attractions rank: 14th

Utah isn't a particularly cost-effective state in which to take a road trip, but its safety and quality of attractions are tough to beat. The state was tied in WalletHub's rankings for the highest percentage of total land area designated as a national park, and it was also tied with Oregon for third-most scenic byways.

8. New York

8. New York

Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, behind New York City.

(Getty Images)

Cost rank: 49th
Safety rank: 4th
Attractions rank: 3rd

Only Hawaii was more expensive to travel in than New York, although the state cracked the top five for both safety and attractions. Only three states had fewer car thefts per capita, and only California and Florida offered a higher-ranked array of activities.

7. Washington

7. Washington

Beautiful Sunny Morning in Seattle With Mt Rainier

(Getty Images)

Cost rank: 43rd
Safety rank: 18th
Attractions rank: 4th

Although Washington isn't a considerably cheaper travel destination than New York, its quality of attractions were right up there with those in the Empire State.

6. Louisiana

6. Louisiana

NEW ORLEANS, LA - AUGUST 28:  Members of the Treme Brass Band play during a 'Katrina Concert' at the historically black St. Augustine Catholic Church on August 28, 2015 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The 10th anniversary of Hurricane Katrina is August 29.  (Photo by Mario Tama/Getty Images)

(Mario Tama/Getty Images)

Cost rank: 10th
Safety rank: 37th
Attractions rank: 10th

Cost and quality solidified Louisiana's place in the top 10, though Florida is the only state among the top 10 to have a worse safety score than Louisiana.

5. Florida

5. Florida

Tampa downtown city office buildings and homes on the water

(Getty Images)

Cost rank: 20th
Safety rank: 48th
Attractions rank: 2nd

With beaches, amusement parks and major city attractions from Miami to Jacksonville to Fort Lauderdale, Florida ranked behind only California for the quality and quantity of activities it offers.

4. Texas

4. Texas

Aerial view highway intersection, stack interchange with elevated road junction overpass in Houston, Texas.

(Getty Images)

Cost rank: 15th
Safety rank: 34th
Attractions rank: 6th

With a similar profile to Louisiana, Texas is a relatively cost-effective road trip destination with plenty of activities for visitors. The state ranked eighth in the U.S. News rankings for its economy but was 46th in terms of quality of life.

3. Minnesota

3. Minnesota

Indian Mounds Park (Saint Paul, Minnesota)

(Saibal Ghosh/Getty Images)

Cost rank: 31st
Safety rank: 1st
Attractions rank: 19th

The safest state in the country for a road trip, Minnesota was only two spots away from ranking first as a destination. Minnesota ranked second in the U.S. News Best States rankings, also placing second in its quality of life index.

2. North Carolina

2. North Carolina

People take pictures on the arched bridge at the Sarah P. Duke Gardens in Durham, N.C., Friday, April 10, 2015. Located on Duke University's campus, the 55 acre public gardens are renowned both for landscape design and the quality of horticulture. (AP Photo/Gerry Broome)

(Gerry Broome/AP)

Costs rank: 11th
Safety rank: 28th
Attractions rank: 7th

Tied with California for most scenic byways in the U.S., North Carolina offers a wide variety of environments and activities. Green forests and major cities such as Charlotte and Raleigh in the western and central parts of the state are contrasted by the Tar Heel State's beaches along its eastern coast.

1. Wyoming

1. Wyoming

A man climbing the route Inconceivable below the Teton Range shrouded in fog, Black Tail Butte, Jackson, Wyoming.

(Kennan Harvey/Getty Images)

Costs rank: 1st
Safety rank: 19th
Attractions rank: 22nd

Cost matters, and Wyoming was determined to be not only the most cost-effective road trip destination in the country but also the top overall spot among all 50 states.

Learn More About Best States

Learn More About Best States

Don't see your state here? See the full list of the 2018 Best States and explore how states did in areas like health care, public safety and opportunity.

Tags: real estate, travel, home improvements, solar energy

Devon Thorsby is the Real Estate editor at U.S. News & World Report, where she writes consumer-focused articles about the homebuying and selling process, home improvement, tenant rights and the state of the housing market.

She has appeared in media interviews across the U.S. including National Public Radio, WTOP (Washington, D.C.) and KOH (Reno, Nevada) and various print publications, as well as having served on panels discussing real estate development, city planning policy and homebuilding.

Previously, she served as a researcher of commercial real estate transactions and information, and is currently a member of the National Association of Real Estate Editors. Thorsby studied Political Science at the University of Michigan, where she also served as a news reporter and editor for the student newspaper The Michigan Daily. Follow her on Twitter or write to her at dthorsby@usnews.com.

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